Republic of Moldova
Biodiversity of the Republic of Moldova
“Garden of Fairy Tales”
Exhibition target and content:
The prototype of the “Garden of Fairy Tales” is a national carpet from the 19th century (see the picture), which is part of the country's cultural heritage. Moldavian team decided to create a floral carpet, which will be represented by ornamental species from the flora of the Republic of Moldova (Paeonia perigrina, Anemone sylvestris, Primula veris, Clematis integrifolia, Vinca minor, Asarum europeum, Adonis vernalis etc.), endangered species, protected by law, but also exotic species with long-lasting flowers, which will provide colour to the garden for a long time. Also, there will be varieties (Paeonia, Iris, Hemerocallis) obtained in the Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences, integrated in compositions with small architectural forms and characters from folk tales to impress the visitors, especially children. Thus, among the decorative banks, pots, wells, carts, swings, we will place fairy-tale characters: the Goat and her Three Kids, the wolf, Păcală and Tândală, the fox, the bear, Făt-Frumos and Ileana Cosânzeana, the dragon, the old witch, etc. A “Wish Tree”, where any visitor can leave a note with his/her wish, will grow in the centre of this carpet. Near the tree, the mascots of the exhibition will be placed: Ece and Efe, dressed in Moldovan folk costumes. The entrance gates will be decorated in the traditional style and the garden – surrounded by a decorative fence made of sticks. This project aims at promoting the floral and faunal diversity of our country, traditions and national costumes and also to delight the visitors with the beautifully landscaped space.
The Strategy on Biological Diversity of the Republic of Moldova for 2015-2020 (hereinafter – the Strategy) reflects the current condition of the biodiversity of the Republic of Moldova, the trends in the changes of the biodiversity components, the goal and objectives of the activities designated for biodiversity protection.
The Biodiversity concept or the concept of biological diversity was first defined in connection with the approval of a new international environmental instrument during the UNCED Earth Summit of 1992 held in Rio de Janeiro. It signifies life on Earth and engages four levels of approach: ecosystems’ diversity, species’ diversity, genetic diversity and ethnic-cultural diversity.
Conceptually speaking, biodiversity has intrinsic value, to which, however, other values are associated such as ecologic, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic.
Being the core condition for the existence of the human civilization, biodiversity assures support for the life system and social-economic systems’ development. There are intra and interspecific connections within natural and semi-natural ecosystems by which material, energy and information exchanges are realized which assure their productivity, adaptability and resilience. These inter-connections are extremely complex; it is difficult to estimate the importance of each of the species for the functioning of the systems and which might be the consequences of a reduced number thereof or of their disappearance for assuring the long-term survival of the ecosystems, the main supplier of resources on which the human development and welfare depends. This is why, biodiversity maintenance is essential for assuring the survival of any forms of life, including human.
Equally important is the role of biodiversity is assuring the ecological systems’ tasks, such as the assurance of soil-climate conditions, purification of water, mitigation of natural disasters’ effects, etc.
The Republic of Moldova ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (hereinafter the CBD) in 1995, which refers to the conservation of the biodiversity, sustainable use of its elements and just and fair sharing of benefits that result from the use of genetic resources and access to these resources, taking into account all rights on the respective resources and thanks to an appropriate financing for the biodiversity conservation measures.
Within the framework of the CBD Conference of parties, the principles which form the basis of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of the social-economic system were also approved, as follows:
1) the principle of prevention: biodiversity conservation is efficiently realised if the effects of possible threats are eliminated or mitigated;
2) the principle of precaution: the lack of complete scientific studies cannot be considered a ground for accepting activities which may have a significant negative impact on biodiversity;
3) the principle polluter pays: the one that causes the destruction of biodiversity must pay for the costs of preventing, mitigating the impact or ecologic reconstruction;
4) the principle of public participation in decision-making and access to environmental information and justice: people must have access to environmental information and the right to participate in making environment-related decisions;
5) the principle of sector integration: biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of its component parts must be taken into consideration in the process of making decisions and of establishing sector-specific policies;
6) the principle of ecosystemic approach: is a management strategy which is integrated, adaptive, based on the application of relevant scientific methodologies which take into account the structure and functions of the ecosystems and their support capacity;
7) the principle of ecological networks: to assure connectivity between biodiversity components with those of the social landscape and structures which have the natural protected areas as central components which establish liaison ecological corridors.
A framework convention, the CBD provides only for general conservation and sustainable use measures, for the implementation of which it is necessary to develop strategies, national plans or programs or adapt those already in place, alongside the integration of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the relevant sector or intersector plans, programs and policies.
For these reasons, in 2001, the Parliament approved the first National Strategy on Conservation of Biological Diversity and the Action Plan (hereinafter the NBSAP). These two documents have pointed out the main directions of activity for the next 10 years and mobilized the country’s internal capacities for solving urgent problems. In the NSAP of 2001, the realization of 263 actions was provided for with an approximate financial support of 19 million USD, the main executors being the Ministry of Environment, the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, the Ministry of Education and the Agency “Moldsilva”.
A large part of the actions provided for in the NSAP CBD were realized, while the implementation progress was reflected in 5 national reports on biodiversity (1999, 2001, 2005, 2010, 2014), posted on the web-sites of the CBD (www.cbd.int) and the Biodiversity Office under the Ministry of Environment (http://bsapm.moldnet.md).
In spite of significant progress in biodiversity protection (extension of natural protected areas and forested areas, creation of the national ecological network, ecological sensitization of the population, etc.), the process of degradation of the ecosystems and natural habitats was not stopped.
The overall objective of this Strategy is to create conditions for improving the quality of the biodiversity components by strengthening the basis for the sustainable development of the country. In this connection, the vision of this Strategy reflects the wish the Republic of Moldova has to get as close as possible to European standards and, respectively, to attain the European integration objective. All priority development directions provided for in the Strategy aim at adjusting the relevant national policies to the European ones.
As a result, by enforcing the Strategy, the provisions of the international treaties to which the Republic of Moldova is a party, especially the recommendations provided for in the Strategic biodiversity plan 2011-2020, including the Aichi biodiversity objectives approved in Nagoya (Japan) at the CBD Conference of Parties (2010), in the EU CBD Strategic Plan till 2020, in the international context of protecting the vulnerable layers of the population and the role of women in protecting the environment and the sustainable natural resources management, promoted by the UN, shall be realized at the national level.
The beneficiaries of this Strategy will be the line central public authorities (Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, the Ministry of Economy, “Moldsilva” Agency), the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, local public administration authorities, the civil society (public associations, the community, and larger public) and the private sector (active in industry, tourism, exploitation of natural resources).