Republic of Kazakhstan
The Botanical Diversity, history and culture of Kazakhstan
Showing biodiversity of Kazakhstan identity of its history and culture
1 To reflect the peculiarity flora of higher plants and the microflora of Kazakhstan, through the familiarization with the endemic and rare species.
2 To show the gene pool of the most valuable species of flora in Kazakhstan.
3 To acquaint with the scientific study areas, conversation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources in Kazakhstan.
4 To demonstrate that Kazakhstan – a tolerant, open to the State cooperation.
1 The installation of natural symbols
a Small architectural forms: bars, tulip, apple
b The volume map of Kazakhstan made areas from acrylic glass
2 The acrylic panel with herbarium species of Kazakhstan (with light diode backlight)
3 The Installation of the ecosystem of Kazakhstan
4 Iphone panel
5 The installation “Modern yurt”
The day of Astana
The day of Kazakhstan
The day of Child protection (exhibition of children’s drawings for theme “Green peace of Kazakhstan”)
The Kazakhstan exhibition garden reflects the biodiversity and the unique nature of the flora of Kazakhstan, as well as its history and its original culture. The 15 species of woody plants represented at the exhibition are deemed to be either the endemic plants of the flora of Kazakhstan or the rare and vanishing plants included in the Red Book of Kazakhstan (some of which are especially valuable wild relatives of cultivated plants).
The territory of Kazakhstan is one of the world centers of species formation and plays an important role in the preservation of global biological diversity. In Kazakhstan there are concentrated the genetic resources of vegetation agricultural and biological diversity of global importance: fruit and berry bearing species (Malus, Armeniaca, Pyrus, Ribes, Amygdalus, Vitis, Pistacea, Eleagnus, Juglans, Hippophae and Grossularia), grain and technical (Aegilops, Avena, Hordeum, Brassica, Linum, Brassica), vegetable cultivars (Daucus, Portulaca, Asparagus, Allium). The preservation of the genetic pool of wild relatives of cultivated plants – the source of initial material is of special interest for the further development of plant cultivation and selection.
In Kazakhstan special attention was paid to the study of Severs apple tree (the proposed ancestor of cultivated apple tree) and of ordinary apricot which is known for its high interspecies diversity. As of present in the natural populations of Zailiyskiy and Jungar Alatau tens of of highly productive and resistant cultivar forms of ordinary apricot and Severs apple tree was selected. In Kazakhstan over there grow over 140 species of grain plants which are wild relatives of cultivated plants. The genetic pol of these plants is already used or it may be used for the support to cultivated cultivars and for selection of new agricultural cultivars with the improved consumer properties and to ensure food stuff safety of the country (Aegilops cylindrica, Aegilops triuncialis, Hordeum bulbosum, Hordeum leporinum).
The flora of Kazakhstan has a great potential as a source of promising medicinal forms. The medicinal herbs serve as valuable raw materials for obtaining phytomedicines with a broad scope of pharmacological and therapeutic effect which have no cumulative properties and are to a lesser degree accompanied by undesired side effects. The actively developed research all over the world in the sphere of chemistry of natural compound are constantly increasing the number of medicinal species. Only in the past few years in Kazakhstan there have been obtained the new effective medicines from Kazakhstani species of Aconitum, Delphinium, Thalictrum, Leonurus, Peganum harmala and a great number of other plants.
As at present time a uniform annotated list has been compiled, of medicinal herbs growing in the territory of Kazakhstan with the indication of their location, pharmacological properties, the sphere of application, the extent of research and a number of other indicators, which includes over 1400 species from 134 families of the higher flower plants. In general the medicinal flora comprises a quarter (26 %) of all species of plants known in the territory of the Republic.
On 8 acrylic panels, the Herbarium fund of the Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction is represented (at present 258 500 items of tracheate plants of Kazakhstan are stored in it).
The seed bank is also represented at the exhibition, in the form of demonstration tables with seed samples of wild relatives of cultivated plants. Considering a great social and economic importance of wild relatives of cultivated plants, the Kazakhstani botanists have undertaken the comprehensive study of the species of wild relatives with floristic phytocenotic, resource related, selection and genetic and phytopathogenic points of view. On the basis of the obtained data an electronic database was formed which summarizes all the obtained data on each identified species and passports of more than 600 species of higher plants of Kazakhstan have been compiled, which have been identified as wild relatives of cultured plants.
The history of formation of the flora of Kazakhstan is represented in the form of a collection of paleobotanic samples. The first information on the discovery of plant remains of the Kazakhstan formations date back to the second half of the 19th century. In many locations they include the remnants of fossil plants. No wonder that it was here that the first Cretaceous flora with the remnants of angiosperms in the territory of Kazakhstan and in the entire Asia was discovered in 1914. Locations with the early Cret middle Albian fossil flora with ancient ferns, gymnosperms and primitive metasperms as well as those with large areas of younger floras of the late Cret period with the predominance of flower plants are known in Kazakhstan. The Institute houses over 500 collections of fossil plants collected in various regions of the Republic. No depositary in the world holds such an abundance of the preserved imprints of leaves of various taxons from the Asian region. This is the largest collection of the remnants of the Jurassic, the Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene periods, not only in Kazakhstan, but in the entire Central Asia.
At the Kazakhstani garden exhibition the Kazakhstani nature symbols are represented: the snow leopard - an endemic of the Tyan Shan mountains; an apple as a symbol of origin of all cultivated apples on Earth; the tulips are endemic plants of the flora of Kazakhstan.
In the exhibition the history of Kazakhstan is shown through ancient stone statues of Bag Baly, which are grand monuments of the steppes.
The sculptures of the Kypchak era depicted the persons holding the vessel in both hands, (which were ancestors, in the opinion of many academics). While in the ancient Turkic sculptures the vessel was at the chest level, in the Kypchak ones it is by the abdomen. Weapons, similarly to the expression of anger on faces, were never depicted in Kypchak sculptures, but sometimes the characteristics of the female, in more rare cases, those of the male sex were emphasized. The Kypchak statues were placed in the eastern side or in the centre of the structure, outwardly resembling a kurgan. Such structures were customarily referred to as the Kypchak sanctuaries. From one up to five sculptures could be placed in the sanctuary. Both the ancient Turkic and the Kypchak sculptures are regarded as memorial monuments, i.e. those erected in memory of the dead. The ancient Turks for instance considered the stone to be eternal which is evidenced by runic inscriptions. Therefore the purpose of the making of stone sculptures was immortalization of the memory of heroes, of ancestors.
It should be noted that unlike the openly erected ancient Turkic sculptures, the Kypchak sculptures were hidden beneath the mounds of kurgan like sanctuaries. The ritual of hiding sculptures within such a man –made “mountain” could be related to the myth regarding the miraculous birth of the ancestor within the mountain, with the belief that the dead person, like an ancestor, could be resurrected from non-existence.
For the purposes of enforcement of the RK Government Resolution № 1062 dated 14 October, 2003, Tamgaly, the state historical and cultural nature reserve and museum was organized which is located in the Tamgaly gorge, 170 km to the north west of Almaty in the Chu-Ili mountains.
In Kazakhstan there are over 1500 locations where petroglyphs, the rock inscriptions on rocks can be encountered. The Tamgaly gorge is the most famous of such location. The gallery of on-rock images of the Tamgaly gorge was discovered on the 19 of September, 1967. The petroglyphs were discovered entirely by accident, nevertheless, the importance of this discovery was such that one of the oldest camps of the man in the territory of Kazakhstan was included in the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage in 2004. The petroglyphs are the most important and the most numerous type of monument of the Tamgaly gorge. The rock drawings galleries were created by our
remote ancestors in various historical era: the mid-Bronze age, the late Bronze-age, the interim period (the early Saka period), the early Iron age (the Saka and the Uissun periods), the Middle Ages (the Ancient Turkic ) and the New Age (the Jungar and the Kazakh eras).
The Middle Bronze era petroglyphs are of greatest esthetic and cultural importance and they form the oldest and most expressive series of the Tamgaly rock drawings.
The masters of rock drawing art of that period are characterized by the wealth of images and motives: the solar gods (“the sun-headed”), “the guisers”, bearing a club, the archer in the wolf mask, the armed warriors, the scenes of sacrifices of animals and persons, erotic scenes, new mothers, chariots, various symbols and signs, as well as numerous images of oxen, koulans, horses, camels, boars, wolves, deer. On the largest stones the unknown masters skillfully inscribed the Buddhist gods: the four-handed defender of the Lamaism-Ariya Balo, Buddha Sakyamuni , Buddha Manla, the god of medicine, Luvan, the dragon king and Buddha Mituk-ba. Around them are the protective instructions, conjurations and prayers in Tibetan, ancient Kalmyk languages and in Sanskrit, and the inscription translated as “the pearl within the lotus flower” is most frequently repeated which is the appeal to Buddha in prayer.
Throughout centuries for various peoples, having left their imprint in the history of Kazakhstan, the canyon rocks and the narrow valley of Tamgaly have preserved the importance of the sanctuary – a place where ritual ceremonies were held and magical rites were performed, the place of worship of the gods and of spirits of ancestors.
In the exhibition one can see a contemporary installation of the Kazakh yurt with all the interior décor: besik (a cradle for a child), a table, a chest, the dombra. The yurt elements are made of transparent acryl and the yurt is visible to the visitors which symbolizes openness and tolerance of our great nation !
The most general meaning of the common Turkic word “jurt” is “a nation”, as well as “a pasture, the ancestral land”. In the Kyrgyz and the Kazakh languages the word “Ata- Zhurt” means “Fatherland”, the synonym of the word “Motherland”, verbatim: “the father’s house”.
At the exhibition you can see the installation of a modern Kazakh yurt with all the decorations inside: besik (cradle for baby), table, chest, dombra. Elements of yurts are made of clear acrylic and yurt entire observable for visitors, which symbolizes the openness and tolerance of our great nation!
The most common Turkic word meaning "jurt" is "people", as well as pasture land of birth. The Kyrgyz and Kazakh languages the word "Ata-Jurt" means "homeland" a synonym for "Homeland", literally "Father's house."